J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jul;59(1):41-4.
Resting metabolic rates of obese women after rapid weight loss.
* Welle SL,
* Amatruda JM,
* Forbes GB,
* Lockwood DH.
Reduced energy expenditure associated with reduced energy intake has been used as an explanation for resistance to weight loss in obese patients. Decreases in serum T3 concentrations and body cell mass induced by restriction of energy intake may contribute to the reduced energy needs. In the present study, mean resting metabolic rate (RMR) was reduced by 9.4% after 5 weeks of a very low energy diet (472 Cal/day) in six obese women, and the mean serum T3 concentration decreased 46%. However, the lowest RMR values measured were similar in these subjects (mean, 1328 Cal/day; range, 1110-1578 Cal/day) to RMR values of lean women (n = 19; mean, 1241 Cal/day; range, 938-1450 Cal/day) and moderately overweight women ingesting ad libitum diets (n = 8; mean, 1335 Cal/day; range, 1064-1533). Decreases in total body potassium (10%) and 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (23%) suggested that there was a substantial loss of body cell mass during weight loss, whereas nitrogen balance suggested that changes in body cell mass were slight. These data and those of previous studies indicate that even after rapid weight loss, the resting energy requirements of obese or previously obese subjects are not abnormally low relative to those of nonobese subjects, even though the concentrations of T3, a major thermogenic hormone, are substantially reduced. The hypometabolic response to weight loss cannot explain the failure of obese subjects to lose weight on weight-reducing regimens.
PMID: 6725523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1088-94.Click here to read Links
Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):655-8.
Do adaptive changes in metabolic rate favor weight regain in weight-reduced individuals? An examination of the set-point theory.
* Weinsier RL,
* Nagy TR,
* Hunter GR,
* Darnell BE,
* Hensrud DD,
* Weiss HL.
Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Human Studies, the General Clinical Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Obese persons generally regain lost weight, suggesting that adaptive metabolic changes favor return to a preset weight. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether adaptive changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thyroid hormones occur in weight-reduced persons, predisposing them to long-term weight gain. DESIGN: Twenty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were studied at a clinical research center in four 10-d study phases: the overweight state (phase 1, energy balance; phase 2, 3350 kJ/d) and after reduction to a normal-weight state (phase 3, 3350 kJ/d; phase 4, energy balance). Weight-reduced women were matched with 24 never-overweight control subjects. After each study phase, assessments included RMR (by indirect calorimetry), body composition (by hydrostatic weighing), serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), and reverse T(3) (rT(3)). Body weight was measured 4 y later, without intervention. RESULTS: Body composition-adjusted RMR and T(3):rT(3) fell during acute (phase 2) and chronic (phase 3) energy restriction (P: < 0.01), but returned to baseline in the normal-weight, energy-balanced state (phase 4; mean weight loss: 12.9 +/- 2.0 kg). RMR among weight-reduced women (4771 +/- 414 kJ/d) was not significantly different from that in control subjects (4955 +/- 414 kJ/d; P: = 0.14), and lower RMR did not predict greater 4-y weight regain (r = 0.27, NS). CONCLUSIONS: Energy restriction produces a transient hypothyroid-hypometabolic state that normalizes on return to energy-balanced conditions. Failure to establish energy balance after weight loss gives the misleading impression that weight-reduced persons are energy conservative and predisposed to weight regain. Our findings do not provide evidence in support of adaptive metabolic changes as an explanation for the tendency of weight-reduced persons to regain weight.