March 28th, 2011 - Open Knowledge — LiveJournal
Mar. 28th, 2011
Science has finally confirmed what anyone who's ever been in love already knows: Heartbreak really does hurt.
In a new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), researchers have found that the same brain networks that are activated when you're burned by hot coffee also light up when you think about a lover who has spurned you.
In other words, the brain doesn't appear to firmly distinguish between physical pain and intense emotional pain. Heartache and painful breakups are "more than just metaphors," says Ethan Kross, Ph.D., the lead researcher and an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor.
The study, which was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, illuminates the role that feelings of rejection and other emotional trauma can play in the development of chronic pain disorders such as fibromyalgia, Kross says. And, he adds, it raises interesting questions about whether treating physical pain can help to relieve emotional pain, and vice versa.
08:33 pm - Teaching Problem Solving
A technique is available, however, which provides prob1em-solving practice for an entire class. It is called Thinking Aloud Pairs Problem Solving (TAPPS). This method evidently was first explored by Claparede (described in Woodworth, ), and was later used by Bloom and Broder  in their study of the problem-solving processes of college students. Art Whimbey and Jack Lochhead [6, 7] have further expanded the technique in their attempts to improve the teaching of reading, mathematics, and physics. In the method a class is divided into a number of teams, each team consisting of two students, with one student being the Problem Solver (PS) and the other being the Listener (L). Each member of the team has a definite role to play, and both must adhere strictly to some rules.
In an article Lochhead  has elaborated some of these rules. PS reads the problem aloud and then continues to talk aloud as much as possible about everything he/she is thinking while attempting to solve the problem. L listens, and has the more difficult role. L must try to keep PS talking; a short silence should be met with, “Tell me what you’re thinking.” More, L must understand in detail every step made by PS. Thus L should ask questions whenever PS says anything that is in the least mysterious. “Why do you say that?” “I don’t understand. Would you explain that to me?” “Run that by again.” are some of the questions/comments L may use. L must avoid solving the problem herself, and must not ask questions which are actually intended as hints to PS. In fact, it isn’t necessary that L be able to solve the problem; her role is to help PS solve it. When students are first learning the method L perhaps can point out that PS has made an error, but should not tell him where it is. With more advanced students it is probably better to let PS find the error on his own. PS and L should switch roles after every problem, but they should never change roles within a problem.
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